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States Consider Renewable Portfolio Standards for Debate in 2015

As the use of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, have taken off across the U.S. in recent years, so too have state-based legislative policies that promote and incentivize growth in these burgeoning sectors. To this effect, many states have been actively adopting and tailoring policies that invest in new and alternative green energy technologies in order to benefit their own economies and the environment at the same time. The most popular among these policies has been the adoption of renewable portfolio standards, or RPS standards. Currently, 38 states and the District of Columbia have adopted these standards, and they remain an active topic of debate in committee chambers and on the floors of numerous state legislative chambers.

These standards work by either requiring or recommending that a state meet a certain percentage of its energy needs through renewable energy generation technologies. These standards vary by both target year and target goal – the most ambitious being Maine, which seeks to meet 40 percent of its energy needs through renewable means by 2017. On the opposite end of this spectrum is South Carolina, which has set a target goal of two percent by 2021.

The adoption of RPS standards over the past decade has led to overwhelmingly positive growth in the renewable energy sector. A 2014 study on the effects of these policies by the University of California has shown that they’ve spurred an eightfold increase in renewable energy generation over the past decade.

States with Renewable Portfolio Standards

States with Renewable Portfolio Standards

Source: NCSL, CQ Statetrack.

To date, Alabama, Alaska, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nebraska, Tennessee and Wyoming have not adopted any type of RPS standard and have also not introduced bills that would do so during the 2015 legislative session. Additionally, and in contrast to most state efforts, West Virginia repealed its RPS standard in January with the adoption of HB 2001, which did away with the program entirely.

Thirty states currently have RPS bills pending: Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Vermont, Virginia and Washington. The topics of these bills can vary considerably based on legislative control of the state: Kansas is considering legislation that would sunset the program in the coming years, New Mexico is seeking to reduce their current targets, while Indiana is seeking to strengthen its program by moving from a recommended target goal to a required goal.

With 45 states still in session across the country and over 100 bills pending, it remains likely that states will continue to take further action in creating, altering or even eliminating their renewable portfolio standards.

Broadband Expanding in Wake of FCC Ruling

Last week the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) took two controversial votes that are likely to affect the nation’s broadband landscape for decades to come, assuming that the rules are not struck down in the courts, where they are likely to be challenged. While the so-called ‘net neutrality’ ruling had been widely publicized and spurred its own grassroots campaign to urge the Commission to approve the measure, the other far less publicized ruling is likely to have a much bigger impact on the average Internet user. In this ruling, the FCC struck down numerous statewide bans on municipally owned cable and broadband providers.

In the wake of this ruling, numerous states and municipalities are now free to move forward more aggressively on expanding broadband in areas where it was not previously possible due to broad restrictions on public ownership of broadband networks. In total, the FCC’s ruling struck down municipal bans in 19 states:

Broadband Expanding in Wake of FCC Ruling

With these bans now out of the way, cities and towns are now free to provide broadband networks where the provision of high-speed service was previously considered to be cost-prohibitive by traditional telecommunications providers. States are now likely to look at new ways to provide the needed funds to spur this development, including allowing municipalities to apply for funds that were previously restricted to private broadband providers.

States will also look at more traditional ways to expand broadband funding regardless of whether it will go to public or private providers: California, Montana, Nevada and New Mexico are all considering such legislation. Bills that would establish a tax credit for businesses investing in broadband access in rural communities were introduced in New Jersey and Virginia in 2014 and will carry-over to the 2015 session.

California legislators could consider AB 57, which was introduced without specific policy language, but states the intent of the legislature to enact legislation to remove barriers to broadband infrastructure investment. Montana Rep. Kelly McCarthy, D-Billings, recently prefiled HB 14, which would allow the state to issue bonds up to $15 million in order to create a broadband development fund to be administered by the Department of Commerce. New Mexico SB 34 was introduced by Sen. Michael Padilla, D-Albuquerque, and would create a broadband infrastructure fund in the state treasury appropriated with $10 million annually from the state’s general fund. This account would be overseen by the state’s Department of Information Technology, who would use it to provide 50 percent matching money for federal grants to bring broadband infrastructure to rural areas in the state, including for retail customers.

Some governors have already taken action or announced plans to do so. Iowa legislators killed a proposal last year that would have improved their broadband network, but Republican Gov. Terry Brandstad is determined that a revised proposal, “Connect Every Acre,” will pass. This plan would focus on providing incentives for broadband companies to build in profitable agricultural areas, reported Omaha.com. According to The River City News, Kentucky Republican Gov. Steve Beshear announced that the state is relying on a public-private partnership to improve their broadband network. The project is expected to be completed with no cost to taxpayers and will move their service from being one of the slowest connections in the country to one of the fastest. New York Democratic Gov. Andrew Cuomo is expected to release guidelines for his $500 million broadband expansion program, “NY Broadband Fund,” which would provide grants to broadband companies offering to match funds to improve existing infrastructure, capitalnewyork.com reports. Vermont Democratic Gov. Peter Shumlin announced in December that he plans to ensure that the areas with the slowest available broadband speeds will receive priority upgrades through a program called “Connect VT.”

Broadband Expanding in Wake of FCC Ruling

States Look to Fill Pot Holes and Budget Holes

States are facing three major hurdles to filling their transportation and infrastructure coffers in 2015: continued fallout from the recession, crumbling infrastructure and an increase in the utilization of alternative transportation fuels. Much of the current funding for state infrastructure needs comes from two sources – federal funding and state gas taxes. Pressure has been on both federal and state lawmakers to raise their respective gas taxes in order to shore up infrastructure maintenance, but the move remains unpopular among the public despite plummeting gas prices.

In addition to the gas tax, many states are looking at alternative proposals in order to fill gaps in their maintenance funds, including a tax or fee on “miles traveled” as well as raising excise or sales taxes on traditional fuels. Below we look at numerous state efforts to do so.

In Connecticut, Democratic Gov. Dannel Malloy made transportation investment a priority for his second term, but did not offer specifics about potential projects. On December 3, Governor Malloy told the CT Mirror, “I’m going to be talking about transportation…so people can make decisions. That will be ongoing throughout the next four years. Certainly, we will begin in earnest shortly.” The state will open a new busway in March 2015 and begin a major expansion for its commuter rail system in 2016.

Delaware Transportation Secretary Shailen Bhatt directly criticized the troubled federal transportation budget process, claiming that states “should not have to engage in creative financing to solve a federal budget problem,” according to the Delaware News Journal. When adjusted for regional inflation, the state’s Transportation Trust Fund has lost 34 percent of its buying power, and it has been forced to shelve a number of much-needed infrastructure improvements.

Republican legislators in Georgia will be challenged to find as much as $1.5 billion in new money to address the state’s aging and insufficient infrastructure, according to the Atlanta Journal Constitution. These lawmakers could face a vote on a gas tax hike or an increase in the state sales tax, both of which are distasteful for a Republican majority with a healthy number of Tea Party supporters. Keith Golden, the state Department of Transportation commissioner, tried to appeal to a state’s rights position before a gathering of lawmakers in early December. “We are much too dependent…on the federal government and that gas tax program,” he said. Republican Gov. Nathan Deal has declined to propose a solution at this time, stating that he prefers that a House or Senate committee make the first move.

A transportation task force appointed by Idaho Republican Gov. Butch Otter estimates that the state would need an additional $260 million per year to maintain its transportation infrastructure. Policy proposals for fixing this shortfall include increasing vehicle registration fees, utilizing the current sales tax on automotive parts for transportation funding, increasing fuel taxes and charging a purchase fee for new or used vehicles, according to the Capital Press.

Iowa Republican Gov. Terry Branstad indicated that the time is right to raise the state’s fuel tax in an effort to fund much needed road and bridge improvements. According to the Des Moines Register, this emphasis on a politically controversial issue marks a shift from his campaign, which addressed mostly small and unproblematic policy proposals. The problem of highway funding has dogged the legislature for years, and neither Democrats nor Republicans have previously been willing to support tax increases to improve those conditions. However, legislators are likely to be in a more cooperative mood in 2015, since Governor Branstad was reelected and the parties will share power in the House and Senate.

Republican Gov. Rick Snyder and legislative leaders will put a ballot proposal before Michigan voters in May 2015 to increase the state’s sales tax from six percent to seven percent, while eliminating the sales tax on motor fuels. This is one piece of a larger plan to generate $1.2 billion a year in new revenue for transportation maintenance, according to MLive.com. A package of bills recently passed by the House and Senate stand to take effect if the ballot proposal is approved. These bills would, in part, change the calculation of existing fuel taxes, as well as eliminate certain registration discounts and increase fees for heavy trucks.

The Minnesota Department of Transportation commissioner Charles Zelle told Minnesota Public Radio that he does not see room in the state’s $1 billion budget surplus to fix its roads and bridges. He would prefer that the state establish a steady stream of revenue, like a road-usage fee, rather than rely on one-time funding. Democratic Gov. Mark Dayton proposed a wholesale gas tax in 2014, but Republicans found the proposal unacceptable.

Legislators on both sides of the aisle in New Jersey have expressed reluctant support for a gas tax hike in an effort to address the looming collapse of the state’s Transportation Trust Fund, according to the Asbury Park Press. Although many acknowledge that the state must address this problem with some kind of tax increase, Assembly members are particularly loath to approve a tax hike because they will face reelection in 2015.

In light of a $5 billion windfall from bank settlements, many in New York are calling for Democratic Gov. Andrew Cuomo to use the funds to improve infrastructure and transportation systems, according to cityandstateny.com. Sen. Joseph Robach, R-Greece, chair of the Senate Transportation Committee, plans to negotiate more reliable transportation funding with the federal government for the future, and would like to shift away from a fuel tax toward something independent of fossil fuel consumption. Governor Cuomo has supported the idea of using these funds to bolster aging infrastructure and would like to do so through a new infrastructure bank, but other legislators caution against treating these one-time funds like an ongoing source of revenue.

Wisconsin also faces a difficult choice in addressing its transportation budget shortfalls, according to the Wisconsin State-Journal. The Transportation Finance and Policy Commission has recommended a number of solutions, including increasing its gas tax by five cents per gallon, increasing annual commercial vehicle registration fees by 73 percent and increasing driver’s license fees. It also proposed to eliminate the sales tax exemption for a vehicle’s trade-in value and adopting a mileage-based fee system for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Many state lawmakers have joined Republican Gov. Scott Walker in decrying a gas tax increase, as well as the possibility of instituting toll roads.

Education Funding, Testing Questions Face State Lawmakers

As the 2015 sessions continue to roll along, lawmakers are continuing to examine crucial education policy issues, underscored by the nationally divisive debates around education funding and testing requirements: both of which will be framed and complicated by the ongoing, overarching debate on the Common Core state standards.

Education funding will remain a salient issue this year as states continue to face tight budgets, a growing list of education priorities and seemingly limitless number of federal mandates. In an effort to confront new budget challenges, states including Georgia, Nevada and Vermont have prioritized reforming school funding formulas in the upcoming year. The goal of raising teacher salaries, which produced a protracted debate in North Carolina during its 2014 legislative session, is likely to remain prominent as other states, including Idaho and New Mexico, seek to enact similar reforms.

Standardized testing, another key issue in education debates each year, is likely to become even more prevalent in the national and statewide education debates in 2015, when 11.5 million students will begin taking Common Core-aligned assessments for English and math. Following opt-out movements in Colorado, Florida, Illinois and New York, other states and the U.S. Congress are looking at how to test students appropriately and how best to mine the resulting data from these tests.

According to a report from the Center for American Progress, a group supportive of the Common Core-aligned tests for their “higher quality” over district-implemented tests, 49 percent of parents think students take too many standardized tests. According to The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs and Research, 61 percent of parents think their children are given the right amount of standardized tests and 75 percent of parents think standardized tests are an accurate measure of students’ abilities.

Standardize Testing

This conflicting data underscores the difficulty in wading through bias for a clear snapshot of the American mood toward standardized testing, water muddied further by parents’ general lack of understanding of the Common Core state standards. The AP report says 52 percent of parents “have heard little or nothing about the academic benchmarks” and one third of parents surveyed are unsure if their state has implemented the standards. Despite the uncertainty in how students are tested and the quality and origins of those tests, parents and legislators are poised to continue pushing back against the sheer volume of testing that has become routine in school districts nationwide.

Much of the testing backlash stems from concerns over the Common Core state standards that were originally adopted by 46 states and the District of Columbia. The standards continue to come under increasing scrutiny from both sides of the aisle, and according to a PDK/Gallup Poll, 60 percent of Americans oppose the standards. While some critics of the standards argue that the testing is too rigorous and doesn’t fairly assess student and teacher performance, others, mostly on the right, rage against what they perceive as a nationwide takeover of schools by the federal government.

Medicaid Expansion Again Takes Center Stage

As in years past, Medicaid expansion is quickly shaping up to be the top health policy issue in many of the states this year and the one that state legislators will undoubtedly spend the most time debating. One of the key provisions of the ACA, or Obamacare, was an expansion of the federal government’s Medicaid program to cover all those under 65 who make less than 138 percent of the federal poverty level (FPL) on an annual basis. As a result of the 2012 Supreme Court case National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, states were granted the right to choose whether or not they would participate in this expansion. Most blue states chose to do so, while most red states have been vehemently opposed.

The notion of expanding Medicaid has long been toxic to many state-level GOP lawmakers who want to see the President’s signature healthcare law repealed and replaced. However, these legislators must also grapple with the prospect of potentially leaving billions of dollars in guaranteed federal funding on the table. This money has caused numerous Republican governors and legislators to take a harder look at the option and could provide their budgets and economies with a much needed cash infusion. Arizona, Ohio and Pennsylvania, all states with both Republican governors and legislatures at the time, chose to expand the program last year. Proposals in Indiana, Tennessee, Utah and Wyoming are being considered as well.

The proposals in these red states are uniquely negotiated and avoid using the term ‘Medicaid’ at all, even though they fulfill the same goal in closing the so-called ‘coverage gap’ for those making between 100 percent and 138 percent FPL. This group qualifies for neither Medicaid nor subsidies to buy health insurance on a state or the federal exchange.

Medicaid States

To date, 27 states and the District of Columbia have gone forward with this expansion. However, 23 states, nearly all of them GOP bastions, have so far refused to expand the program, though many are set to relent and consider proposals. Below are some of the states most likely to consider expanding the program in 2015:

  • Alabama has expressed that he may support the seeking of a block grant from the federal government for the purpose of expanding Medicaid, which is in stark contrast to his campaign platform opposing Medicaid expansion. Governor Bentley is seeking an alternative expansion plan similar to those brokered in other GOP strongholds.
  • Alaska newly-elected Independent Gov. Bill Walker campaigned on the promise that he would expand Medicaid as one of his first tasks as governor. He will face strong opposition from the Republican legislature.
  • Florida may have the potential to expand its Medicaid program in 2015, an effort that would provide health coverage to nearly 700,000 people. A plan known as A Healthy Florida Works has been gaining traction with GOP legislators and may offer a viable way to fill both the coverage gap and looming budgetary gap.
  • Indiana Republican Gov. Mike Pence says he will not expand the state’s regular Medicaid program because it is “broken,” but he intends to implement an improved version of the Healthy Indiana Plan pilot program that was first implemented in 2008.
  • In February 2014, the Missouri Senate defeated an effort to expand Medicaid. Democratic Gov. Jay Nixon favors the expansion, and Sen. Ryan Silvey, R-Kansas City, says he has support for an expansion proposal in 2015.
  • Montana legislators are reportedly gearing up for another fight over the expansion of Medicaid, as they fell one vote short of doing so in 2013. Democratic Gov. Steve Bullock has thrown his support behind a plan known as the “Healthy Montana Plan” in the upcoming legislative session.
  • Tennessee Republican Gov. Bill Haslam, incoming chair of the Republican Governor’s Association, unveiled a program in December known as “Insure Tennessee,” the state’s own personalized take on expanding Medicaid. The plan is likely to face pushback from conservative lawmakers, though the governor and his staff are hopeful that they will be able to pass a plan this year.
  • Texas Republican Governor-elect and current state Attorney General Greg Abbott surprised many conservatives in his own party when he asked for more information about a compromise recently struck by the federal government and Utah’s Republican Gov. Gary Herbert. The state currently has the largest number of uninsured residents that would potentially be covered under an expansion of Medicaid.
  • Utah Republican Gov. Gary Herbert recently proposed his own alternative proposal to Medicaid expansion, known as “Health Utah.” However, it will face an uphill battle with conservative members of the legislature after its Health Care Reform Task Force chose not to recommend the plan be heard before the full body, according to The Salt Lake Tribune.
  • Virginia will once again take up the issue of Medicaid expansion after last year’s dramatic failure that saw members of the Senate allegedly bribed by both conservative Republicans and the governor’s own Chief of Staff. The issue was narrowly defeated as the balance of power in the Senate shifted to Republicans, who have vowed to continue to fight any expansion in the state.
  • Wyoming Republican Gov. Matt Mead is urging the Republican-controlled legislature to approve a new plan set forth by the state Department of Health, one year after rejecting federal funds to expand Medicaid. According to the governor, the state must be “realistic” in accepting Medicaid expansion as the law of the land. Wyoming has negotiated with the federal Department of Health and Human Services to come up with their own version of Medicaid expansion, the Strategy for Health, Access, Responsibility and Employment (SHARE) plan.